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How much CO2 does international shipping emit in a year? Is rising sea levels good for shipping? What can international shipping do to reduce its CO2 emission? Is technology the panacea to the problem?

The Centre for Maritime Studies, NUS and the Singapore Maritime Foundation are pleased to host a Maritime Decarbonisation Symposium with experts from different fields on the important question of climate change and international shipping. Hear from researchers and practitioners on the science and practices in new technologies, greener regulations, more efficient operations, and market forces that will help to meet the International Maritime Organisation's goal of reducing the total annual GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 levels.
Programme Highlight
Conference Recordings
 11 Sep
 18 Sep
Panellists
...
Dr Peter NUTTALL
Panellist
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Dr Sanjay Chittarajan KUTTAN
Panellist
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Mr Panos Koutsourakis
Panellist
...
Prof CHEW Ek Peng
Moderator
Speakers
11 September
...
Mr Andreas SOHMEN-PAO
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Dr Peter NUTTALL
...
Dr Sanjay Chittarajan KUTTAN
...
Mr Panos Koutsourakis
...
Dr John CALLEYA
...
Mr Kenneth LIM
...
Dr SOU Weng Sut, Maggie
...
Dr ZHONG Sheng
...
Prof ANG Beng Wah

18 September
...
A/Prof Jolene LIN
...
Dr CHUA Kie Hian
...
A/Prof NG Szu Hui
...
Dr Prapisala THEPSITHAR
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A/Prof ZHAO Dan
...
Dr SU Bin
...
A/Prof CHAI Kah Hin
Programme Schedule
11 SEP
9.00 am
Opening Address
By: Mr Andreas SOHMEN-PAO
9.15 am
Panel Discussion:
Climate Change and the Maritime Industry
By: Dr Peter NUTTALL, Dr Sanjay Chittarajan KUTTAN and Mr Panos Koutsourakis
Moderator: Prof Chew Ek Peng
10.15 am
The Challenges in Reducing GHG Emissions from International Shipping
By: Dr John CALLEYA
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How do we measure greenhouse gas emissions from shipping?

We measure greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption by multiplying by a fixed conversion factor, which is based on the oxygen in the air and the carbon content of the fuel that is used.

The big difficulty is understanding how the fuel consumption is impacted by other factors, there are many things that can impact the fuel consumption of a ship, the ship itself itself is a complex moving structure, weather conditions are changeable, crews change and the depth of the water also has an impact on resistance, the condition of the ship and the hull of the ship can change. The last two alone, water depth and the hull condition can increase resistance by 10 to 50%.

In practice, the best way to know exactly is to monitor ships is to use on board system that can monitor many different ship parameters in real time so you can see what parameters change with fuel consumption.

However, we can make very good guesses of fuel consumption from different input parameters, using a combination of mathematical calculations and past experience.

At IMO two approaches are used, the IMO Fourth GHG has estimated fuel consumption from ship activity for past years by getting the position of ships from Satellite, using Satellite AIS. AIS was intended initially as a way for Ports and Ships to communicate to avoid collisions, but since the invention of Satellite AIS it has been possible to accurately monitor ship activity.

From 1 January 2019 the IMO has also began collecting fuel consumption data from ships (which I have been responsible for), but again there is a difficulty of understanding how this fuel consumption relates to the activity of there ship. In general, there is a lot of discussion at IMO about how different should be treated, because some ships are more efficient then others. For example, there are factors to correct for ice class ships used for existing and future regulation, which use more fuel in order to break ice. Having correction factors for these allows these ships to be compared against other ships.

How can IMO’s levels of ambition for reducing greenhouse gas emissions be achieved?

In 2018, the IMO agreed the IMO Initial IMO GHG Strategy, which contains levels of ambition for the shipping sector. Including reducing GHG emissions of the sector by 50% by 2050.

It is possible to add energy efficiency technologies and measures to ships for small gains in energy efficiency, but to pursue really high reductions in GHG emission of more than 50%. This is why the Initial IMO GHG strategy recognises that future fuels are an integral part of achieving the levels of ambition.

The IMO has has an energy efficiency standard for new ships, in force since 2013 and has recently agreed a grading system for energy efficiency for existing ships in the world fleet. This is a big move, it will take months for the industry to make the required in changes when the regulation comes into force.

It is essential to reduce the amount of  fossil carbon based fuels being used in the shipping sector in order to meet the levels of ambition in the initial imo GHG strategy. However, what is not 100% clear exactly which fuels are likely to use used in the future. Biofuels may have some use in shipping, but are likely to be limited supply. Ammonia and Hydrogen contain no carbon and are very promising, but the engine technology is still under development for these fuels and to reduce overall lifecycle emission fuels have to be produced from renewable energy, hydrogen is currently produced from fossil fuel.

Some Member States are concerned about impact of climate, but some Member States particularly developing countries and those depending on shipping are concerned about the cost of shipping increasing.

The IMO has made a lot of progress over the past several years in introducing global regulation for the shipping sector to reduce GHG emissions in what can be complex discussions. However, there is a lot of future further discussions needed.

Key concepts/theories:
IMO strategy, IMO setup, the roles of MEPC and past successes
10.45 am
Short Break
11.00 am
Can Singapore Make a Difference in the Global Maritime Decarbonisation Effort? 
By: Mr Kenneth LIM
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Introducing MPA and Maritime Singapore
  • Why does the global maritime decarbonisation effort matter?
  • Can Singapore make a difference, and how? Sharing on MPA’s sustainability focus and strategies

Climate change is a global challenge across various countries and sectors. Do you know that the maritime industry, which carries more than 80% of the goods we consume daily through the sea route, is actively and urgently looking into this issue too? Why is this so, and what are the actions that the maritime industry can take to achieve our goal of reducing greenhouse gases (GHG)? How can Singapore contribute?

In this webinar, Mr Kenneth Lim, Assistant Chief Executive (Industry) of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA), will be providing insights into the above topic. He will also be highlighting to our audience, the gatekeepers of our future, how they can join hands with us to develop solutions that will shape the future of our maritime industry. Mr Lim will be sharing on MPA’s sustainability focus and strategies that contribute towards strengthening Singapore’s status as a global hub port and leading international maritime centre, including the greening of Asia’s upcoming and largest transhipment hub in Tuas.

11.30 am
Shipping and Emission: Inventory and Forecast
By: Dr SOU Weng Sut, Maggie, Dr ZHONG Sheng
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • How do we account for CO2 emission inventory and forecast future emission from shipping?
  • Which types of ships emit the most?
International shipping has been increasingly committed to addressing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has published the Fourth IMO GHG Study in 2020. According to the study, international shipping accounted for around 2% of global CO2 emissions in 2018 and was 10% below 2008 levels. In addition, global CO2 emissions from shipping in 2050 is projected to be between 10% lower and 30% higher than in 2008, depending on a range of plausible long-term economic and energy scenarios. In this session, we will discuss the how CO2 emission inventory could be accounted and also demonstrate different ways to forecast future emission from international shipping.

Key concepts/theories:
Forecasting techniques
12.00 pm
Tracking Energy Efficiency Trends in the International Shipping Sector
By: Prof ANG Beng Wah
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Role of energy efficiency in energy transition and deep decarbonisation
  • How energy efficiency is defined and its changes tracked
  • Index decomposition analysis and its application to the international shipping sector
  • Examples and cases
This topic deals with tracking energy efficiency trends in the international shipping sector. It begins with the role of energy efficiency in energy transition and deep decarbonisation, and how energy efficiency is defined and its changes in major energy consuming sectors are usually tracked by national agencies and international organisations, i.e. using the index decomposition analysis approach. This is followed by discussions on the application of the approach to the international shipping sector together with relevant examples and cases.

Key concepts/theories:
Energy efficiency, IDA
12.30 pm
Online Fun Quizzes (With Attractive Prizes to be Won!)
1.00 pm
End
18 SEP
9.00 am
Decarbonizing the Maritime Industry - What Is the Role of Law?
By: A/Prof Jolene LIN
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Why is reducing the carbon footprint of the global shipping sector critical for climate change?
  • What is the current international framework that governs decarbonisation efforts of the shipping sector?
  • What are the challenges and what can be done?
9.30 am
Evolution of Ship Designs
By: Dr CHUA Kie Hian
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Ship design driven by the development of propulsion technologies
  • Novel ideals explored in the context of the urgent calls to address climate change
  • How decarbonisation and smart technologies intertwined in shaping the design of future ships.

In this talk, we will look at the evolution of how ships are designed, driven by the development of propulsion technologies, from the early days of sailing merchant ships, to steam, and to modern day commercial vessels.

Novel ideas to re-harness wind power and other alternative means of propulsion will also be explored in the context of the urgent calls to address climate change.  Lastly, we will look at how decarbonisation and smart technologies will be intertwined in shaping the design of future ships.

Key concepts/theories:
Naval Architecture
10.00 am
Selecting Mitigation Measures to Reduce GHG Emissions
By: A/Prof NG Szu Hui
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Applicability of the T&O measures for different ship types
  • Achieving IMO’s reduction targets
  • Prioritize and select these measures
Shipping is a major contributor to global CO2 emissions and various technical and operational (T&O) measures have been proposed to reduce ship emissions to tackle its impact on climate change.  In this talk, we will discuss the applicability of the T&O measures for different ship types, how they can help to achieve IMO’s reduction targets and how to prioritize and select these measures.

Key concepts/theories:
Technology readiness level, MACC, Monti-carlo simulation
10.30 am
Alternative Fuels and Energy Sources
By: Dr Prapisala THEPSITHAR
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • Biofuels, Hydrogen, Electrification
  • What about using carbon-free fuel/energy source such as H2 and electricity?
  • When can we have them?

In the past two centuries, the propulsion of ocean-going vessels for commercial trade has been transformed significantly. With a series of innovation of the diesel engine, heavy fuel oil (HFO) has become a fuel of choice for shipping industry since 1970 due to its applicability, its cost-efficiency and its ease of handling. By the start of 21st century, ships driven by diesel engines accounted for 98 percent of the world fleet. Currently, there are around 90,000 vessels used for cargo movement with different types and age distribution. These ships are responsible for 2-4% of the world’s annual fossil fuel consumption, accounting for around 250-300 million tonnes per year. Against the progressive transformation of other industries and recent developments, there is a concern over the sustainability of the current practice of ship operation using conventional fuel oils, particularly concerns over GHG emission.

Towards energy and environmental sustainability, worldwide research and development have been focusing on alternative energy sources (i.e., lower-carbon energy sources or zero-carbon energy source). These include (but not limited to) LNG, Bio-LNG, methanol, bio-methanol, bio-oil, biodiesel, synthetic diesel, renewable hydrogen and electricity. The presentation aims to provide information terms of potential candidates of alternative energy sources for shipping industry, their performances in different aspects and ultimately their practicalities as energy sources toward decarbonisation of shipping industry.

Key concepts/theories:
Life Cycle Analysis, Supply Chain Readiness
11.00 am
Short Break
11.15 am
Carbon Capture Technologies
By: A/Prof ZHAO Dan
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • What are the currently available carbon capture technologies?
  • What are their applicability in maritime decarbonisation?
Maritime transport generates 940 MtCO2 emission annually, which is about 2.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon capture technologies can play an important role in maritime decarbonization. In this talk, I will briefly review the currently available carbon capture technologies and their applicability in maritime decarbonization.
11.45 am
Market-based Mechanisms for International Shipping
By: Dr SU Bin
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    Issues to be discussed:
  • What are the market-based mechanisms?
  • What are the challenges to implement them for international shipping?
Market-based mechanisms (MBMs) have been proposed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They help fight climate change by putting an explicit price on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and spurring businesses to find the cost-effective ways to reduce these emissions. Two forms of the MBMs are the carbon tax and emission trading. They have already been implemented in many countries or regions on territorial-based emissions. In 2021, there are 64 countries or regions with the MBMs in operation and three scheduled for implementation, which covers around 21.5% of global GHG emissions. A carbon tax directly establishes a price on GHG emissions—so companies are charged for every ton of emissions they produce—whereas emission trading issues a set number of emission “allowances”, which can be auctioned as well as traded on secondary markets, creating a carbon price. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has realized that technical and optional measures would not be sufficient to satisfactorily reduce the GHG emissions from international shipping with rapid growth of world trade. The MBMs are considered as part of the comprehensive measures for the effective regulation of GHG emissions from international shipping. This presentation will discuss the similarities and differences between carbon tax and emission trading, and the challenges faced to implement them for international shipping.

Key concepts/theories:
Economic principles
12.15 pm
A Systems Perspective to Maritime Decarbonisation
By: A/Prof CHAI Kah Hin
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How can we achieve the IMO 2050 goal?

Key concepts/theories:
Systems Thinking, Minimum Energy Standard, Market Pull, Tech Push, S-curve
12.30 pm
Online Fun Quizzes (With Attractive Prizes to be Won!)
1.00 pm
End
▲ Programme Schedule
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Centre for Maritime Studies
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