We measure greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption by multiplying by a fixed conversion factor, which is based on the oxygen in the air and the carbon content of the fuel that is used.
The big difficulty is understanding how the fuel consumption is impacted by other factors, there are many things that can impact the fuel consumption of a ship, the ship itself itself is a complex moving structure, weather conditions are changeable, crews change and the depth of the water also has an impact on resistance, the condition of the ship and the hull of the ship can change. The last two alone, water depth and the hull condition can increase resistance by 10 to 50%.
In practice, the best way to know exactly is to monitor ships is to use on board system that can monitor many different ship parameters in real time so you can see what parameters change with fuel consumption.
However, we can make very good guesses of fuel consumption from different input parameters, using a combination of mathematical calculations and past experience.
At IMO two approaches are used, the IMO Fourth GHG has estimated fuel consumption from ship activity for past years by getting the position of ships from Satellite, using Satellite AIS. AIS was intended initially as a way for Ports and Ships to communicate to avoid collisions, but since the invention of Satellite AIS it has been possible to accurately monitor ship activity.
From 1 January 2019 the IMO has also began collecting fuel consumption data from ships (which I have been responsible for), but again there is a difficulty of understanding how this fuel consumption relates to the activity of there ship. In general, there is a lot of discussion at IMO about how different should be treated, because some ships are more efficient then others. For example, there are factors to correct for ice class ships used for existing and future regulation, which use more fuel in order to break ice. Having correction factors for these allows these ships to be compared against other ships.
In 2018, the IMO agreed the IMO Initial IMO GHG Strategy, which contains levels of ambition for the shipping sector. Including reducing GHG emissions of the sector by 50% by 2050.
It is possible to add energy efficiency technologies and measures to ships for small gains in energy efficiency, but to pursue really high reductions in GHG emission of more than 50%. This is why the Initial IMO GHG strategy recognises that future fuels are an integral part of achieving the levels of ambition.
The IMO has has an energy efficiency standard for new ships, in force since 2013 and has recently agreed a grading system for energy efficiency for existing ships in the world fleet. This is a big move, it will take months for the industry to make the required in changes when the regulation comes into force.
It is essential to reduce the amount of fossil carbon based fuels being used in the shipping sector in order to meet the levels of ambition in the initial imo GHG strategy. However, what is not 100% clear exactly which fuels are likely to use used in the future. Biofuels may have some use in shipping, but are likely to be limited supply. Ammonia and Hydrogen contain no carbon and are very promising, but the engine technology is still under development for these fuels and to reduce overall lifecycle emission fuels have to be produced from renewable energy, hydrogen is currently produced from fossil fuel.
Some Member States are concerned about impact of climate, but some Member States particularly developing countries and those depending on shipping are concerned about the cost of shipping increasing.
The IMO has made a lot of progress over the past several years in introducing global regulation for the shipping sector to reduce GHG emissions in what can be complex discussions. However, there is a lot of future further discussions needed.
Climate change is a global challenge across various countries and sectors. Do you know that the maritime industry, which carries more than 80% of the goods we consume daily through the sea route, is actively and urgently looking into this issue too? Why is this so, and what are the actions that the maritime industry can take to achieve our goal of reducing greenhouse gases (GHG)? How can Singapore contribute?
In this webinar, Mr Kenneth Lim, Assistant Chief Executive (Industry) of the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA), will be providing insights into the above topic. He will also be highlighting to our audience, the gatekeepers of our future, how they can join hands with us to develop solutions that will shape the future of our maritime industry. Mr Lim will be sharing on MPA’s sustainability focus and strategies that contribute towards strengthening Singapore’s status as a global hub port and leading international maritime centre, including the greening of Asia’s upcoming and largest transhipment hub in Tuas.
In this talk, we will look at the evolution of how ships are designed, driven by the development of propulsion technologies, from the early days of sailing merchant ships, to steam, and to modern day commercial vessels.
Novel ideas to re-harness wind power and other alternative means of propulsion will also be explored in the context of the urgent calls to address climate change. Lastly, we will look at how decarbonisation and smart technologies will be intertwined in shaping the design of future ships.
In the past two centuries, the propulsion of ocean-going vessels for commercial trade has been transformed significantly. With a series of innovation of the diesel engine, heavy fuel oil (HFO) has become a fuel of choice for shipping industry since 1970 due to its applicability, its cost-efficiency and its ease of handling. By the start of 21st century, ships driven by diesel engines accounted for 98 percent of the world fleet. Currently, there are around 90,000 vessels used for cargo movement with different types and age distribution. These ships are responsible for 2-4% of the world’s annual fossil fuel consumption, accounting for around 250-300 million tonnes per year. Against the progressive transformation of other industries and recent developments, there is a concern over the sustainability of the current practice of ship operation using conventional fuel oils, particularly concerns over GHG emission.
Towards energy and environmental sustainability, worldwide research and development have been focusing on alternative energy sources (i.e., lower-carbon energy sources or zero-carbon energy source). These include (but not limited to) LNG, Bio-LNG, methanol, bio-methanol, bio-oil, biodiesel, synthetic diesel, renewable hydrogen and electricity. The presentation aims to provide information terms of potential candidates of alternative energy sources for shipping industry, their performances in different aspects and ultimately their practicalities as energy sources toward decarbonisation of shipping industry.